Blog

Only showing posts tagged with 'learning' Show all blog posts

Researching Adult Learning at Manchester Art Gallery

by YPU Admin on January 7, 2016, Comments. Tags: Humanities, learning, manchester, Manchester Art Gallery, masters, Museums, Research, and UoM

Introduction

Hello, my name is Ed Trotman and I’m employed as a graduate intern with the University of Manchester, working specifically on the Schools-University Partnership Initiative (SUPI). I’ve recently graduated from the University with an MA in Art Gallery and Museum Studies. Prior to this I completed an undergraduate degree in History at the University of Bristol.

You might not have heard of Museum Studies as a degree option - it involves the study of the role of museums and galleries in society as well as how museum professionals (e.g. curators, conservators, educationalists) go about putting on displays and exhibitions. The idea is that it provides a basic training to enter the museum sector. As a Master’s degree it took place over the duration of a year (although some Masters take longer!). In this time I learnt about a variety of aspects of museum work. I also did a lot of volunteering with staff at the Manchester Museum, the Manchester Central Library, the Museum of Science and Industry and Manchester Art Gallery. The course culminated in a research project assignment. This could be on any topic related to Art Gallery and Museum Studies. 

Thinking about my experiences of learning about and working in museums and art galleries I decided that I wanted to investigate the educational role of these institutions. I discovered that cultural organisations play a bigger role in society than I was aware of. It is common, for instance, to find that museums carry out community outreach projects in poorer socio-economic areas, host workshop classes for the very elderly and those with dementia and provide educational activities for people of all ages and backgrounds struggling with disability.

Despite their social good however, factors including transport costs, limited free time and a lack of familiarity with cultural institutions often prevent many adults from accessing the museum’s educational resources. I was interested to know how museums and galleries could seek to attract more adult visitors to talks and workshops, how best to engage with them whilst they were there and how to encourage them to come again. 


In Depth

After doing some reading I found that not that much research had been done by academics within the field of Museum Studies into adult education in cultural institutions (which was actually pretty shocking!). In order to understand more about the best ways of going about adult education in museums/galleries I looked at Adult Learning theory. In particular, I read about the Theory of Andragogy by Malcolm S. Knowles. This is a foundational theory of adult learning which states that adults learn differently to children. Knowles defines six key principles which explain how adults learn differently. These include the ideas that adults rely heavily on lived experience to learn, that they always need to know why they need to learn something before learning it and that they prefer to be self-directed when learning. When these ideas were published in the sixties they were fairly controversial but have now become more accepted. Knowles argues that these principles can be applied to almost any situation in which adults are being encouraged to learn.

The focus of my research was to understand if Knowles’ principles had broader application within cultural institutions. I assessed two educational sessions for adults at Manchester Art Gallery including a gallery tour and a workshop, carrying out focus group interviews with participants in both. I found that, in the workshop class, many of these ideas were already being used by gallery staff to great effect and could be seen to have application. In the tour session meanwhile it was clear that teaching staff were contravening several of Knowles’s principles and consequently adults reported feeling frustrated with their experiences. As a result I concluded that the principles of Andragogy had practical use here. The process of carrying out this research and writing it up was really interesting, especially as I felt like I was contributing something new to the field of Museum Studies. I got to speak to members of the public about art and art galleries and practice my interview skills. 


Going Further

If you want to find out more about my MA, the Theory of Andragogy or the sessions I attended at Manchester Art Gallery follow the links below:

Art Gallery and Museum Studies at the University of Manchester: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/study/masters/courses/list/01100/art-gallery-and-museum-studies-ma/

Knowles’ Theory of Andragogy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andragogy

Manchester Art Gallery, Exhibitions and Events: http://manchesterartgallery.org/exhibitions-and-events/

Museums Association http://www.museumsassociation.org/home


 

Teaching in School vs University: Is there a difference?

by YPU Admin on November 26, 2015, Comments. Tags: Education, learning, Research, teaching, university, and UoM

Introduction

Hi, my name is Kelly and I now work in the Student Recruitment and Widening Participation department of the University of Manchester. For the past three years, I have been a student studying Psychology at the University and for the thirteen years before that, I too was propelled along the standard education pipeline (or maybe not so standard anymore) by attending first school, middle school and high school.

In Depth…

One of the main parts of my job, for the past couple months now, has been the development of an EBL project for our visiting Year 11 students. EBL stands for ‘Enquiry Based Learning’ (or Inquiry Based Learning if you’re American) and is equivalent to ‘Problem Based Learning’, which you might have heard of before. This method of teaching starts with a question, a problem or a scenario, and it is the student’s task to solve this problem, with the aid of a facilitator.

Not a teacher.

That’s great, right?

Think again.

The lack of teacher leading the way means that the road from problem to solution is less smooth, less clear, but then when in life is the answer ever clear? In this situation, you are responsible for your own learning, for figuring out your answers and where they fall into the topic of your choice. This method of independent learning is fundamental to the way students traditionally learn at university.

  1. You’re given a topic or a lecture – a foundation, so you can understand the task
  2. You are provided with resources to be used as starting points (these can be textbooks, journal articles or websites)
  3. And then you have to produce work at the end of it e.g. an essay, a report or a presentation, about what you've found out

This is what I've tried to recreate in my own EBL project for visiting Y11 students. This project is the finale to the flagship pre-16 Gateways programme, ran by the University of Manchester. Groups of school pupils visit campus year upon year, from Y7 to Y11, to find out more about the opportunities to study in Higher Education and develop new and transferable skills. In this final part of the programme, students are presented with a lecture on a case study (a Volcanic Disaster for this year). They were then sorted into groups depending on their interests and sent away (with the help of a Student Ambassador) to research that area for an hour and a half. The day finishes with each group giving a presentation on what they found and a prize is given to the group that presented the best.


This transition from teacher-led to research-led learning replicates what you would experience if you chose to study at university. When you’re at the cutting edge of your field and learning the newest knowledge being published to date, it’s highly likely that you’ll find yourself not knowing the answers, and being in the position where YOU could contribute to future knowledge, explanations and discoveries.

Throughout your early school days, you may have been taught that there’s only one right answer, and you’ll get a mark for getting that answer right. University is different. There might be some things that we THINK answer the question, but these may still be debated. Something you, or the media or the educational system take for a fact, may still actually be not so certain.

Some courses at university take advantage of this method. Medicine is taught using in many universities around the country. It works in similar to the EBL project above: all of the medics would be split off into groups with people they don’t know, they would be given a case study – perhaps a patient with a case of symptoms. It would be their job to work together to research and collaborate and figure out the causes and treatments of the case.

I believe taking part in EBL tasks early on in education has the advantage of pressing students to think outside of the box and to find their own answers; sometimes topics can be more complicated than just getting the answer right.

Going Further…

Here are some references you may find useful:

 

Social media as a learning tool

Introduction

My name is Laura, and I am taking a year away from being a medical student to complete a masters in Health Care Ethics and Law. Medical schools call this year out an "intercalation year" and offers it to all medical students interested in earning an extra science-related degree on top of their current medical degree. In my fourth-year at medical school, I started a research project to explore how medical students used social media to achieve their learning goals. Is there a place for social media in an academic institution at all? Can social media actually benefit students rather than be a distraction? This was what I wanted to find out. Right now, the study has gone international with medical schools as far as Australia, North America, Saudi Arabia and many more taking part!


In Depth

I think it is safe to say that most of you are on some sort of social media website, whether that is Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc. At the very least you will have heard of them. Mostly they are used for leisure purposes, but could they also offer some learning benefits?

For a while now, higher education institutions have adopted social media technology as a means of delivering curricula. Medicine is a discipline that has only just started to look into this possibility. Our research study has identified several ways in which social media is currently used to facilitate curricula delivery and supplement independent learning:

-  Creating Facebook groups with peers to extend small group seminar discussions to the online world

-  Sharing of academic resources and journals via social media

-  Fast, effective communication channels between peers and lecturers irrespective of classroom hours and physical location

-  Following hastags on Twitter appropriate to the subject they are learning

-  Searching YouTube videos for practical procedure demonstrations or tutorials

-  Instagram-like applications available to doctors and medical students where they can share and discuss pictures of clinical examination findings, blood test results, chest x-rays, electrocardiograms, MRI/CT scans etc.

-  Using interactive twitter feeds in classrooms to answer students' questions and encourage participation

The list could go on. The body of research literature available to date indicates there are positive outcomes to the implementation of social media technology into the medical curriculum which outweighs any drawbacks - increased motivation and engagement with study material, increased likelihood of seeking academic support, improved exam scores, improved confidence with the subject and better knowledge retention. The study is still ongoing and the next phase will involve investigating whether attitudes towards social media use in medical education differs between countries or cultures. 


Going Further

To find out more about studying medicine at undergraduate level or doing an intercalation year, see:

Manchester Medical School http://www.mms.manchester.ac.uk

Intercalation year http://www.mms.manchester.ac.uk/about-us/whymanchester/education/intercalation/